Picking at Threads, Part 4 – The Origins of Yahwism

Picking at Threads Part 1 covered what science has shown us about the origins of our universe, our planet and of the diverse life that lives here.  Our Earth is about 4.5 billion years old and modern humans have lived here for about 200,000 years or so.  This is obviously in direct contradiction with a literal reading of Genesis, thus the need for Biblical literalists and to attempt to discount such science as radiometric dating and the evidence for evolution by natural selection.

Part 2 briefly examined the religions of the Ancient Near East.  There is certainly much more that could be said for them than what I was comfortable covering in a single blog post.  Nonetheless I discussed some of the deities, myths, stories and legends of  the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians and perhaps most importantly, the Canaanites.  The Ancient Near East was a veritable melting pot and trading post of religious ideas, stories, gods, goddesses and mythical heroes, including some that are quite obvious parallels to accounts in the Bible, yet can be shown to have originated earlier.

Part 3 was our first look at the Bible, in particular, the authorship of the Torah or Pentateuch: the first 5 books of the Bible.  The evidence does not point to Mosaic authorship, let alone a single author, but at least four authors writing at different periods, in different places and with different views of Yahweh, Israel, the priesthood, creation and many other details.  It also exposes the all too human origins of this ancient, revered text, as well as indicating some of the means by which we can interpret other parts of the Bible.

A question then arises.  If there were no Adam and Eve, if there is no evidence for the  Flood, the patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac and Jacob) or seemingly the Exodus, and if the Torah was written by Jewish men at periods ranging from 900 BC at the earliest to 500 BC, then where and when did the worship of the Judeo-Christian god Yahweh begin?  Can this question even be answered to any degree and if so, how?

This was a very important question for me when I was searching for the answers to my beliefs, or rather former beliefs.  When I sought out these answers, I was still assuming the existence and truth of the God of the Bible, Yahweh, and his son Jesus Christ.  I wanted to know what history and archeology can tell us about the very beginnings of my religious belief.  This article covers part of what I found.

How can an answer be found?

The Bible tells us that men have been speaking directly to God since the very beginning with Adam, Eve, the Patriarchs, Noah and Enoch.  It also tells us Yahweh revealed himself to Moses during a significant event on Mount Sinai/Horeb after which he led the Israelites out of Egypt and promulgated the greatness of Yahweh to the people Israel.  The problem with these stories is that they cannot be shown to be historic or even scientifically feasible.

But is there any truth in what the Bible says?  Can it be used at all to answer questions such as the origins of the worship of Yahweh?  The answer is “possibly”, but only if what the Bible says makes sense according to other evidence, such as the historical record, archeology and science.

Archeological evidence is unfortunately scant, but the intense interest in Biblical archeology has led to some very interesting discoveries, some of which pre-date the Torah itself and even lend some credence to elements in the Bible.

Specifically, other than the Genesis/Exodus myth, does the Bible say anything else about Yahweh’s origins?  Seemingly, yes.  Here I will examine two hypotheses that relate to the origins of the god Yahweh and the cult of his worship.

The Kenite Hypothesis

Biblical scholars have found that there are a handful of verses in the Old Testament that point to specific locations from whence Yahweh came.  They are as follows:

Yahweh came from Sinai,
from Seir he dawned on us,
from Mount Paran blazed forth,
For them he came, after the mustering at Kedesh
from his zenith as far as the foothills.  (Deuteronomy 33:2)

Eloah comes from Teman,
and the Holy One from Mount Paran.
His majesty covers the heavens,
and his glory fills the earth. (Habakkuk 3:3)

Yahweh, when you set out from Seir,
when you marched from the field of Edom,
the earth shook
the heavens pelted,
the clouds pelted down water.
The mountains melted before Yahweh of Sinai,
before Yahweh, God of Israel.
(The Song of Deborah, possibly one of the oldest passages in the Bible
Judges 4:4-5)

Who is this coming from Edom,
from Bozrah in crimson garments,
so magnificently dressed,
marching so full of strength?
–It is I, whose word is saving justice,
whose power it is to save. (Isaiah 63:1)

There is a common thread here.  Edom, Mount Paran, Sinai, Seir and Teman.  All of these locations center around Edom and its surrounding area, located south of Israel. In these passages, Yahweh is depicted as coming out of these places, usually marching or “blazing forth”.  These passages suggest a tradition that Yahweh has origins in this region.

Connecting to these verses is the story of Moses and his father-in-law Jethro/Reuel, a Midianite priest who is also described as a “Kenite”.  Note that this is one place where the Torah sources differ.  The Yahwist names this man Reuel in Exodus 2 and Numbers 10, while the Elohist names him Jethro in Exodus 3 and 18.  It also seems he is named Hobab in Judges 4, which is possibly written by the Deuteronomist of the Documentary Hypothesis.  The Yahwist says that Hobab is not Moses’ father-in-law, but rather his brother-in-law.  So either the author of Judges was mistaken or was writing according to a different tradition.

In any case, the Jethro/Reuel character is interesting.  First is the name Reuel.  Any name that ends in -el is what is called theophoric.  This means that the name of a god is embedded into the name.  For example, many Egyptian pharaohs had theophoric names, such as Thutmoses (Thut), Rameses (Ra), Amenhotep (Amun).  The Old Testament is rife with theophoric names, particularly those ending in “-iah” (for Yahweh) and “-el” (for El or God).  This also usually points to a specific meaning for a name.  In the case of Reuel, the meaning is “Friend of El” or “Friend of God”, depending on whether you translate “El” as a proper name or as a generic term for “God”.

As a point of interest, names in the Bible are often suspiciously appropriate for the character, often describing a deed for which they are known or the manner in which they died or other significant aspect of their character.  When names are that suspiciously appropriate it certain raises the question of whether this could really have been the name of the character or even if the character really existed.  In the case of Reuel, there is a suggestion that this person, by his very name, is a friend of God.  This is a bit unusual for a Midianite in the wilderness south of Israel.

But back to the point at hand.  Three things are specifically mentioned of Jethro/Reuel.  One is that he is a Midianite priest.  Another is that he is the father-in-law of the primary hero of all Judaism through the marriage of his daughter to Moses, quite an honor for a Midianite.  The third is that he is a Kenite (a group that is seemingly part of the Midianites).  That he is a priest in the narrative is of no doubt, but the big question is, for which god is he a priest?  In my opinion, the evidence here is inconclusive but there is a fascinating possibility.  Either Jethro was a pagan priest who immediately converted to Yahwism and offered sacrifices to Yahweh or he was already a priest of Yahweh.  The relevant verses, Exodus 18:10-12, are not conclusive for either hypothesis.  Some scholars interpret his calling upon the divine name and offering of sacrifices before Moses and Aaron ever did as evidence that he was already familiar with the process and in fact, demonstrating it to Aaron and Moses.  The verse where Jethro says that “now I know that YHWH is greater than all the gods” is often seen as evidence for a conversion, but it can also be seen as Jethro being very pleased at the confirmation that a deity he already worships is, indeed, greater than the other gods.  Place the emphasis on the word “know”:  “now I know that YHWH is greater than all the gods”.  In fact, this could be evidence that Jethro was both a pagan and a priest of Yahweh, where Yahweh was one of a number of gods and this evidence demonstrated to Jethro that Yahweh was the greatest among them.  Or that the Midianites were already henotheists who acknowledged other gods, but whose primary god (Yahweh) was seen as above the rest.

If Jethro were not a priest of Yahweh, it would be somewhat suspicious that his conversion was so abrupt.  For a lay person this wouldn’t be surprising, but for someone whose duty and livelihood as a priest was dependent on a particular deity, it would seem unusual for him to convert so quickly to Yahwism, especially when the evidence presented was, at the time, entirely anecdotal.  Yet this would not be surprising if Jethro were a Yahwist already.  The name “Reuel” would also be very strange for a pagan priest or at the very least.  It stands to reason that anyone who is a “friend of El” or “friend of God” would already have to know of this god.

The hypothesis that Jethro was already a priest of Yahwe before any Israelite would lend very strong credence to Yahweh’s Midianite/Edomite origin.  But even if he were not, it is still apparent that this region near the Arabah (Edom/Midian) is still very significant in the Hebrew tradition of the knowledge and worship of Yahweh.

There is yet another verse that is interesting in light of this:

You must not regard the Edomite as detestable, for he is your brother. (Deuteronomy 23:8)

Biblical tradition has it that the Edomites stemmed from Esau, Jacob/Israel’s brother, which means that Edom and Israel are literally cultural brothers.  Could the reason for this etiological tale (written centuries later) be a means of explaining a brotherly relationship between Edom and Israel?

There is yet more compelling evidence in the story of Cain.  I won’t go into the detail here, but I’ll link to a few articles explaining it.  The basic idea is that the name “Cain” and the word “Kenite” are nearly identical in Hebrew.  Again, names are not coincidences in the Bible and this is quite possibly an indicator that Cain was originally seen as an ancestor of the Kenites.  Some scholars have even suggested that Kenites aren’t an ethnic group, but rather an occupational group of metalworkers, as the Genesis account of Cain would suggest.

Yahweh’s House

Still another passage that may speak to the origin of Yahweh is one from 2 Samuel, where Yahweh speaks to Nathan about the “house of cedar” that David is considering building for Yahweh.  In addition to having a link to older Canaanite religious traditions, I think this verse is another indicator of Yahweh’s southern origins:

Go and tell my servant David: Thus says Yahweh: Are you the one to build me a house to live in?  I have not lived in a house since the day I brought up the people of Israel from Egypt to this day, but I have been moving about in a tent and a tabernacle.

2 Samuel 7:5-6

This could be considered my own minor contribution to the Kenite hypothesis, as I have never seen it used as evidence (though that doesn’t mean it hasn’t, only not in the research I’ve seen.  It’s also possible I’ve missed something.).

Here Yahweh is telling David he doesn’t really need to build a home for him and is fine with living in the tent and tabernacle.  But he specifically says that he hasn’t “lived in a house since the day I brought up the people of Israel from Egypt”.  This implies that Yahweh, at one point, “lived in a house”.  In other words, someone had built a permanent temple for him.  Furthermore, the last time Yahweh lived in this house was at the time of the Exodus.

But where could this house have been?  I have yet to find any evidence of a house/temple built among the Edomites or Midianites and it seems dubious that the former temple of Hathor in Timnah could be it (we’ll get to that shortly).  Perhaps this simply refers to Mount Sinai/Horeb/Paran in the very region the Kenite hypothesis suggests, or perhaps it is evidence of an earlier temple built for Yahweh by the original Yahwists in this region.  In either case I find this to be a fascinating bit of evidence for the Kenite hypothesis.

Extra-Biblical Evidence

The Biblical evidence is tantalizing, yet is it at all supported by anything outside the Bible itself?  This is actually where I think the hypothesis gains the most ground.

The first and oldest piece of extra-biblical evidence, in fact the very oldest mention of the divine name Yahweh yet found by archaeologists, are Egyptian inscriptions that date from the reign of Amenhotep III (14th century BC) and Rameses II (13th century BC) that refer to a certain “Shasu of YHWH”,  shasu being an Egyptian word for nomadic peoples that lived in the area of (you guessed it) Edom/Arabah.

Another dating from about the 9th century BC are pottery shards at Kuntillet Arjud, which speak of “Yahweh of Teman”, “Yahweh of Samaria” and also include the interesting phrase “and his Asherah”, which could have two possible meanings.  Asherah can mean either an idol/statue or the Canaanite goddess Asherah being portrayed as Yahweh’s consort.  Scholars generally consider the former to be the correct interpretation, but either is still possible and both are interesting and are the source of much debate in the scholarly community about its meaning.   “Yahweh of Teman and his Asherah”, even if it means idol/statue, still paints an image in contrast with the command forbidding the creation of graven images.

These shards seem to indicate a few different things.  The first two are that Yahweh is associated with and perhaps has temples in both Teman and Samaria.  Here we have a pretty solid indicator of association with a region of northern Israel, though given the time of dating it isn’t surprising.  But we also have yet another solid association with Teman, the same geographical region south of Israel proposed by the Kenite hypothesis.

The Edomite god Qos

Finally, there is evidence related to the only other known god of Edom, Qos (or Qaus).  The god Qos follows the Storm Deity motif common in the Ancient Near East.  Storm gods were typically described with imagery related to storms, were praised for bringing rains and also performed double duty, serving also as the patron warrior deity, marching forth and aiding in conquering enemies.  Other storm deities include Ba’al, Hadad, Jupiter and even Yahweh himself, as indicated by Psalm 29 and many other passages in the Old Testament.

Where did Yahweh acquire his storm deity properties and description?  Among the possibilities are that Yahweh and Qos were, in fact, the same deity in Edom, simply known by two different names or possibly that YHWH is an epithet of Qos.  It could be that the Bible itself attests to this by its total lack of polemic against the Edomite religion or Qos.  The Bible holds nothing back in its ire for foreign gods, such as Chemosh, Ashur, Astarte, Dagon, Milcom/Molech, Tammuz and especially Ba’al.  Yet the Edomite god is never mentioned, nor their religion described as an abomination.  Perhaps this silence is indication, just as Deuteronomy 23:8, that the Edomites have a special relationship with Israel, or even that the god of the Edomites isn’t an abomination because he was Yahweh all along.  In this case, Jethro could have been a priest of both Qos and Yahweh, whether or not they were the same god.

The Bronze Serpent

One last bit of evidence, one that I’ve not seen applied to the Kenite hypothesis, is the bronze snake spoken of in Numbers 21:4-9.  In this Elohist (and thus older) source, Yahweh instructs Moses to craft a bronze snake that may be looked upon to cure snake bites.  This same bronze snake is mentioned in 2 Kings 18:4 where it is called “Nehushtan” and is destroyed as an idol during this reform period.

In the Timnah Valley, a region in Edom, a mine complex was discovered that had been used by the Egyptians.  In this area was also discovered a temple to the Egyptian goddess Hathor that had been repurposed by Midianites there.  References to Hathor were mostly removed or defaced (obviously there was enough left for archaeologists to deduce who the temple was originally devoted to).  While there is no textual evidence of which deity the Midianites worshiped at this temple, there were two hints, one of which is very strong indeed.  The first are copper rings along two walls that were exactly of the sort that held curtains which gave this temple a striking similarity to the Biblical Tabernacle.  The second, more interesting find was none other than a bronze serpent.  Perhaps the bronze serpent figures were used by many cultures during this primitive time and it wasn’t exclusive to Yahwism.  Thus far there is no evidence of this.  However, if this temple had originally been used by the Midianites to worship Yahweh, that would make sense of the rings and the serpent.

Overall, the Kenite hypothesis explains both Biblical and extra-Biblical evidence quite well regarding the time and location of Yahweh worship.  The next question is, if he originated in Edom, how did he make his way into Israel?  Perhaps because of a mundane explanation like trading and travelers.  Or perhaps something more fascinating.

A Historical Exodus

It is a commonly held view among archaeologists and Old Testament scholars that the Exodus never happened.  There simply isn’t enough evidence to support the story.  This doesn’t mean it definitely never happened, only that we don’t have evidence to suggest that it did, which significantly lowers the probability that it actually occurred.

However, what archeology does not support is the Exodus as it is described in the Torah: two million people leaving Egypt with spoils, animals and goods, wandering the wilderness for 40 years then conquering Canaan.  Some myths and tales become embellished over time, or specifically rewritten to illustrate a point.  Authors of antiquity did not think about history the same way we do today and were often willing to compose myths and tales that, while not historically true, were seen as allegorical truths to prove a point about relationships with gods and other peoples.  Occasionally these tales are thought to have kernels of historical truth, around which has been built a much larger legend.

So could there be a kernel of truth in the Exodus story?  Richard Elliott Friedman has put forth a very interesting hypothesis that suggests there really was an Exodus, just not the way the Bible describes it.

Levites Only

Friedman suggests that the Exodus was of a significantly smaller scale than is described.  Notably, he suggests that it was only the group we call “Levites”.  There is some very interesting evidence for this.

First is that Levites in the Bible have Egyptian names, such as Moses, Phinehas, Hophni and Hur.  These are as distinctive as “Cavoletti”, “O’Hara” or “Kosaka” would be for their heritages today.  Second are what are thought to be the two oldest passages in the Bible: the Song of Miriam (Exodus 15:1-18) and the Song of Deborah (Judges 5:2-31).

The Song of Miriam, or Song of the Sea, is a poem written in very archaic Hebrew that describes the departure of Egypt, yet never once mentions or otherwise uses the name “Israel”.  It speaks only of a “people” leaving Egypt.  This would make more sense if it were only referring to a single people, such as the Levites.  Otherwise the lack of any mention of Israel is very odd here, which means very improbable if it really were speaking of all of Israel.

The Song of Deborah is another ancient poem, this time written in Israel itself.  While it enumerates ten tribes of Israel, there is one tribe conspicuously absent: the Levites.  Why were they absent from the enumeration?  Either they were not there (perhaps in Egypt?) or they aren’t an ethnic tribe, but a priestly group.  Or both.  This passage is also among those listed above that indicate Yahweh’s Edomite origin.

So the Song of Miriam, which takes place in Egypt, doesn’t mention Israel.  The Song of Deborah, taking place in Israel, doesn’t mention Levites.  This makes more sense under the assumption that the Levites weren’t actually a tribe, but a priestly people, or that the Levites simply weren’t there yet.

Evidence from the Sources

As mentioned in Part 3 of this series, the Torah was likely written by 4 primary sources: J, E, D and P.  Three of these four sources are attributed to Levitical priests (E, D and P).

E and P have an interesting distinction from the J source: according to both of them, the name Yahweh wasn’t known until it was revealed to Moses on Sinai/Horeb while in the J source, the name was always known.  According to E and P, Yahweh was previously known as El (El Shaddai).  The fact that E and P, both Levitical priests, attribute the revelation of the divine name during the Exodus in Sinai/Teman/Edom is evidence that Levitical priests learned of this name in the very same region as suggested by the Kenite hypothesis.

This is significant because these authors seem to be suggesting that in the land of Midianites, Yahweh revealed to Moses that he was, in fact, El, the God of old in Israel. The Ancient of Days that was above all other gods.  If the hypothesis is that Levites brought the worship of Yahweh to Israel after leaving Egypt and passing through Edom, this evidence fits very nicely.  It would then be incumbent on these priests to introduce this new god to Israel in a way that is appealing to them: by suggesting that Yahweh is the same as the god El that they have already been worshiping.  This will be significant in Part 5 of Picking at Threads.

E, P and D are also adamant that foreigners be treated well.  In Deuteronomy 23:8 (the same verse that commands not to find Edomites detestable) it is commanded that Egyptians be treated well because they were once strangers in their land.  This commandment to treat foreigners well is found all throughout E, D and P (all Levitical priests), yet is missing in J.  More evidence that the authors of these passages are descended from ancestors who knew what it was like to live in a foreign land, in particular Egypt.

Egyptian Influence

In addition to the Egyptian names among the Levites, there are three other Egyptian influences in the cult of Yahweh.

First is the Tabernacle.  There are more words written about the Tabernacle in the Torah than any other single topic, and it is written by P.  The J author has nothing to say about the Tabernacle. Not a single word of mention from the only non-Levite source.   It has been shown that there are magnificent architectural parallels between the tent of Rameses II and the Tabernacle, such as proportions, a central area covered by curtains and other similarities.  This leads to another Egyptian influence: the similarity between the ark of the covenant and Egyptian funerary barques and the associated symbolism.  In particular, the idea of a god inhabiting a central area of a temple, and in particular within an object.  Even the design of the ark bears similarity to Egyptian barques.

An Egyptian barque was essentially a funerary or religious object, shaped like a small boat with a box, though not actually used as a boat.  It often had gold plating, was carried only by priests who had gone through purification rituals and only on poles.  They were often “protected” by symbols such as the wings of Horus and sphinx like creatures that between the two, bear strong resemblance to the cherubim creatures in the Bible and other similar creatures of myth in the Ancient Near East.  There are more parallels than this, but I’ll leave that as an exercise to the reader by providing a link at the bottom of this article.

Finally there is the practice of circumcision.  The oldest evidence of male circumcision are several Egyptian writings and inscriptions dating as far back as 2300 BC.  The Egyptians had been practicing it for thousands of years and it is very well attested to in their inscriptions.   It is entirely possible that the Levites picked up this practice while in Egypt and brought it into the cult of Yahweh.

Why were there Levites in Egypt to begin with?

The answer to this question could be as simple as that they went to Egypt to make lives for themselves or any number of reasons.  But there is another possibility that is fascinating as well as supported by historical evidence.  The Hyksos.

Between Egypt’s Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom was a major downturn and this vulnerability led to its conquest by a group known in the Greek language as the “hyksos”, which translates to “rulers of foreign countries”.  The historical record shows that these people were Semitic speaking people evidently (by their theophoric names) Canaanite.  Their primary deity was Ba’al, whom they equated with the Egyptian god Set.  They ruled Egypt for only 100 years (about 1650 BC until 1550 BC) before they were driven out by Ahmose I, bringing in the New Kingdom and legendary pharaohs such as Amenhotep III, Rameses II, Akhenaten and Tutankhamun.

1550 BC is entirely too early for the fleeing Hyksos to have been the Levites of the Exodus, but that’s not what is suggested here.  A lot can happen in a century, and it certainly seems reasonable that a group of Canaanites had either become culturally integrated with Egypt or were allowed to stay due to some privilege, perhaps being a priestly caste.  In any case, it’s quite possible that the Levites who left Egypt in Friedman’s little Exodus were among the remnants of the Hyksos.

A few scholars have put forth controversial hypotheses such that Moses was the same person as the heretical monotheist pharaoh Akhenaten, and that Judaism’s later monotheism was a direct result.  I only bring this up because it comes up in discussions about this time period, especially when Levites are mentioned, but these aren’t accepted by either mainstream Egyptologists or Biblical historians.

I don’t find it far-fetched to think that Levites could have been inspired by Egyptian priests.  In fact, this is what Friedman argues to some extent.  But to suggest that  it was Akhenatens’s specifically, or even that monotheism was an idea they found attractive would be mere speculation.

No matter the reason or the history, the idea of a priestly caste living in Egypt, later to leave in what would eventually be retold as the Exodus, is certainly plausible.


The hypotheses briefly surveyed here aren’t certain.  At best we can say that at the present time the Kenite Hypothesis is the most probable explanation of the very few we have to begin with, as it explains the current evidence best.  Friedman’s historical Exodus also seems to explain current evidence well and even accounts for a lack of evidence for the Biblical Exodus.  Best of all, both of these hypotheses fit nicely together, as follows:

  • The land of Edom and Midian, inhabited by a group known as Kenites, possibly metalworkers, had a local storm god named Yahweh, possibly another name for their god Qos, or coexisting with him.  This group was known at the time by Egyptians as Shasu of Yahweh.
  • A group of Hebrews called Levites spent time in Egypt or perhaps were even born there as descendant of the Hyksos,  and were influenced by Egyptian culture and cultic practice such as the barques, their war tents and the practice of circumcision.  These Hebrews (or a part of them) left Egypt.
  • On the way from Egypt they made their way through Edom and intermingled with the local peoples (Midianites/Kenites) where they were exposed to the local storm and war god, Yahweh.  It’s possible they spent nearly a generation “wandering the desert” as nomads (shasu).  A generation in Judaism is often expressed as “40 years”.
  • These Levites were possibly led by a man named Moses (an Egyptian name) who would later be significantly mythologized
  • Or maybe Moses never existed (I haven’t read the scholarship on this yet)
  • The Levites brought this new deity into Canaan/Israel (possibly Samaria in particular), a land currently inhabited by polytheists whose primary deities were Ba’al, Astarte, Asherah and most particularly El, the head of their pantheon, which created a conflict that required creative resolutions (important in Part 5).
  • This Levitical line of priests would go on to compose much of the Torah and Deuteronomic history of Israel, including the mythical components of the Exodus and conquest of Israel and others inspired by earlier myths such as the Babylonian creation story, Sumerian and Babylonian flood myths, Sargon’s birth narrative and the Canaanite myths that already pervaded the culture of Israel.
  • These Levitical authors, as well as others, remembered the Edomite origins in oral traditions and possibly lost written traditions that would go on to inspire tales like Cain, Jacob and Esau and commandments to respect Edomites and foreigners, especially Egyptians.

Perhaps new evidence in the future will shed more light on these hypotheses, either further confirming or disproving them.  Until then, I think these two together are the best explanation we have for the origin of Yahwism.

Part 5 will look at what happened when this new god was brought into an already religious, polytheistic culture that had been worshiping Ancient Near Eastern gods for centuries, if not millennia.  It may take a couple of months to write part 5, however, as I am in the process of reading three books on the subject of ancient Israel and its gods.



  • Your entire understanding of the Hebrew Sovereign named YHWH is faulty, since you fail to understand even the meaning of this Hebrew “compound” name. The name in Hebrew means “He-Exists.” YHWH as revealed throughout the entire Hebrew Scriptures has been given many descriptions, and credits but is made knownby contact to human (Adam) kind only through the Created “Alueim” (the messengers, angel beings, aliens). YHWH is a pure non-physical “Life-Force Essence” that fills His entire Universe. An ever existing original-originator. As such, mortal men cannot in anyway shape or form comprehend this “Life-Force” without His appointed Created messengers, or angels, to reveal Himself to us, or if you are brave, the alien beings in the Universe that serve only their Sovereign Creator named YHWH. All homage made to the Created Alueim is in effect homage paid to the Almighty Sovereign Creator Power, the Life-Force Essence of all that is existing.


  • Hi there, thanks for commenting. There are many possibilities of translation for YHWH. Hebrew is occasionally not entirely clear on meaning and this is one of those scenarios. Yet the meaning of the name has little to do with the article. And regardless of what the meaning is, it is still entirely plausible that humans came up with it.

    But as for the rest of your comment, how would you know if what you said were not true? How would you know if YHWH was not a non-physical, eternal life force essence that fills the universe?


    • Jeremy,

      YHWH is an Almighty Sovereign that has no purpose in transmitting or providing confusion. It is impossible (in my opinion) not know how to pronounce His name, since it is to be taught to “all generations.” Exo. 3:14-15. In English, His name is “He-is” or He-Exists. He says to us I AM, we say his name as “He-Is.” This is not rocket Science. The JW’s are still trying to cover up their confused name used for the Almighty as “Jehovah.” In Hebrew Y-HWH is the pronoun “He” followed by the verb “exist” or “to–be.” To pronounce it in English it is The sound “Y” (ya) connected to the English sound “HWH.” Try it.

      All through the Hebrew Bible, YHWH describes who and what He is, He always speaks through His inspired prophets, or those He selects to be His mouth piece. The claim of inspired revelation is found all through the Hebrew Scriptures (but never in the Greek Bible) . He also accomplishes His work and fulfills His plan(s) through His appointed Powers, even our globe and our solar system was created or formed by His messengers. The Scripture refers to them as the “Alueim” (powers). YHWH Himself however, is “THE” Almighty Sovereign Power.

      This knowledge can only come to those that address Him by name, and then sincerely ask to receive wisdom and knowledge from Him. As an ordinary man (indoctrinated into Christianity through childhood) this is what I did over 30 years ago, after being unable to reconcile the Hebrew Bible with the Greek NT. Now at 73, all I am attempting to do is to provide the knowledge I have been given from HIM to others. What they do with the information is completely up to them. I do not care either way, since I am not an evangelist and their eternal demise in entirely up to them not me.

      You ask me how would I know if YHWH was not a non-physical, eternal life force essence that fills the universe, or if what I have said was not true? I cannot answer that question, since the answer dwells within me. There is no proof that I can show you. The evidence from science or what is visible in nature appears to me to be overwhelming. All I can suggest to you and to others, is to do what I did years ago, that is, with a sincere and humble heart ask to receive the truth, and for discernment from YHWH, Do NOT pray to any other, Than I can guarantee He will provide it to you. Once you have connected to the Almighty Sovereign named YHWH, the Life-Force Essence of Creation, you will receive complete comfort from Him and the mysticismthat has been developed by men will be gone, truth will come to you

      John (Yochannan) William


  • The Mormons make a nearly identical claim. That according to their scripture in Moroni 10:4, if you pray to God with a sincere and humble heart to receive the truth, that you will KNOW that the Book of Mormon is true and is that Joseph Smith was a true prophet of God who revealed the everlasting gospel of Christ. If someone prays and this does not happen, then it means you were not praying with a sincere and open heart.

    Many Mormons are convinced of their beliefs because they prayed sincerely and received a feeling like no other that told them without doubt that they were following the truth of God. It is sometimes described as an incredible feeling of comfort or relief, or of a warmth or intense feeling of being loved, or something along those lines.

    How is that possible?


    • Jeremy,

      Like the NT Greek, which is NOT “inspired” by YHWH and does not make that claim, the Book “called the Book of Mormon” (it has many sections) can be proven to be fraudulent from within its own pages. Furthermore, it is also an Addition to the original Scriptures. Like the NT, it violates Deut.4:2; 12:32; Prov. 30:5-6.

      Not everything even in the Hebrew Bible is the “inspired” word of YHWH. Only discernment from YHWH will allow you to make that determination, and the claim that was made by the author/prophet for his message.

      Mormons are mostly “good” people, but also misdirected through their adoption of a Novel written by Solomon Spaulding, that was stolen after his death and then promoted by Joe Smith (a flam flam man) as his new revelation, Through these Mormon additions, (their new revelations) Mormons have received the spirit of deception. It is very strong, and motivated by indoctrination that has made them slaves to the Mormon system, (except for the KJV of the Bible), where “YHWH’s” name is hidden under the English word “LORD,” I know of no place where YHWH’s name is to be acknowledged in any Mormon documents.

      From the claims of Isaiah:

      Isa 45:18 For Yahweh who created the heavens, the Mighty One who formed the earth and made it, who established it and didn’t create it a waste, who formed it to be inhabited says: “I am Yahweh; and there is no other.

      Isa 45:19 I have not spoken in secret, in a place of the land of darkness. I didn’t say to the offspring of Jacob, ‘Seek me in vain.’ I, Yahweh, speak righteousness. I declare things that are right.

      Isa 45:20 “Assemble yourselves and come. Draw near together, you who have escaped from the nations. Those have no knowledge who carry the wood of their engraved image, and pray to a god that can’t save.

      Isa 45:21 Declare and present it. Yes, let them take counsel together. Who has shown this from ancient time? Who has declared it of old? Haven’t I, Yahweh? There is no other Mighty One besides me, a just Mighty One and a Savior; There is no one besides me.

      Isa 45:22 “Look to me, and be saved, all the ends of the earth; for I am Mighty One, and there is no other.

      Again, the Book(s) the Mormons use (except for the KJV) are all man made, and full of errors. I know of no place in the entire collection of Mormonism, where the name of the Power of Israel “YHWH” is ever invoked, addressed, or understood.




      • So you’re saying that the Mormons are being fully convinced of something that is not true.

        Why do you think the test in Moroni 10:4 is so successful for Mormons? Why do people get these amazing feelings that they feel can only be attributed to them being God’s confirmation that it’s true? They believe it so deeply that they are willing to commit years of their lives to missionary trips and tremendous devotion to their church, as well as crediting their beliefs for instilling tremendous family values and togetherness.

        Why are they so convinced and inspired by something that may not be true? Why does their test seem to work?


  • The question should be, why is Mormonism as a religious belief so successful? Answer, many reasons but mostly because of indoctrination and Church pressure, also the inability of Mormons to think outside of their religious box.

    For example, read: Jacob 4:1, here it tells us that only a little of the words can be written because of the difficulty of engraving the plates……so……..a question, why are there so many sentences in the book of Mormon 200 to 300 words long? The best example has to be in 4 Nephi 1:6, where 57 words are used to merely say that “59 years had passed by!”

    The Book of Mormon is a complete fraud, and has lead many astray. Sad. Even within its pages the proof can be found.

    John (Yochannan) William


    • But that’s not what my question was. You obviously do not believe the Book of Mormon to be true. But many people are convinced that it is by praying about it sincerely and getting an amazing feeling like no other that they feel must be God’s confirmation that it is true. The book itself says that this is how one will know. Furthermore, if you do not have this experience, it means you must not have been praying sincerely.

      How do you explain this phenomenon?

      Liked by 1 person

    • Jeremy didn’t ask you to prove Mormonism is wrong through the text. He asked you to prove it using the same measure you claim to have proof of your belief.

      Jeremy asked you how is it possible for you to claim the same test for proof as Mormonism does (an earnest prayer) only for both yourself and Mormons to come to a similar conclusion (peace and passionate commitment inspired by that peace)?

      The implication of Jeremy’s question is that there is a connecting thread. Either all roads lead to God so long as hearts are pure in seeking, or else we are deceived by feelings, or else some other thing deceives us (makes us feel false peace because we are not predestined for example, as some have interpreted scripture), or something else altogether. The point is, how can you know you are not the one who is wrong? How can they? How can anyone if it comes down to an emotional reaction?


      • It is NOT the same test, since Mormonism is base primarily upon their “additions to the Hebrew Bible. The test must be from the Hebrew Bible.(the same Bible Yahshua (Jesus) Used).

        Second, all such additions do not have the Blessings or the inspiration from the Almighty Sovereign revealed by him to His anointed prophets in the Hebrew Scriptures, as they (the prophets) specifically claim.

        Third, if you do not pray to the the Almighty of the Hebrew Scriptures, you will be praying to the wind. The name of the Almighty of the Hebrew Scriptures, is not “God.” Anything or anyone that is held by you in high esteem can be your “god.” you may as well pray just to Joe, or Sam, or Jeremy…..and expect to get the same results.

        Fourth, All false Doctrines get their origin from man-made “additions” to the Hebrew Bible, no exception, because they all use “some new fake revelation” as their authority, otherwise why would they need someting “new.” If you don’t have something new, you will be left with the original. Because people need some thing new, there are some 30,000 “Christian Beliefs” in the world today (according to Google)……. They are all developed from perceived new doctrines, or their attempted interpretations of new doctrine, all discovered using their man-made “new additions.”

        The Almighty Sovereign revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures does NOT change. He is the same today and will be tomorrow as He was in the Ancient of Days. All “revisionism” is man-made.



  • You still haven’t answered the question. I understand that you believe Mormons to be wrong. You don’t need to say any more about that. But I wasn’t asking if you thought they were right, or why they were wrong.

    My question is, why does their test (pray sincerely) work for millions of people?


    • Mat 7:12 Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets. (MORMONS LOVE HELP MORMONS, AND CONVERTS TO MORMONISM).
      Mat 7:13 “Enter in by the narrow gate; for wide is the gate and broad is the way that leads to destruction, and many are those who enter in by it. (THE SOCIAL SYSTEM OF MORMONISM)
      Mat 7:14 How narrow is the gate, and restricted is the way that leads to life! Few are those who find it.

      Mat 7:15 “Beware of false prophets, (LIKE JOE SMITH) who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly are ravening wolves.
      Mat 7:16 By their fruits you will know them. Do you gather grapes from thorns, or figs from thistles?
      Mat 7:17 Even so, every good tree produces good fruit; but the corrupt tree produces evil fruit.
      Mat 7:18 A good tree can’t produce evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree produce good fruit.
      Mat 7:19 Every tree that doesn’t grow good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire.
      Mat 7:20 Therefore by their fruits you will know them.

      Mat 7:21 Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven; but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. (MORMONS DO WHAT THEIR CHURCH TELLS THEM)
      Mat 7:22 Many will tell me in that day, ‘Lord, Lord, didn’t we prophesy in your name, in your name cast out demons, and in your name do many mighty works?’
      Mat 7:23 Then I will tell them, ‘I never knew you. Depart from me, you who work iniquity.’

      Mat 7:24 “Everyone therefore who hears these words of mine, and does them, I will liken him to a wise man, who built his house on a rock. (YAHSHUA TAUGHT FROM THE HEBREW BIBLE, NOT THE BOOK OF MORMON).
      Mat 7:25 The rain came down, the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat on that house; and it didn’t fall, for it was founded on the rock.
      Mat 7:26 Everyone who hears these words of mine, and doesn’t do them will be like a foolish man, who built his house on the sand.
      Mat 7:27 The rain came down, the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat on that house; and it fell—and great was its fall.” (MORMONISM WILL FALL, BECAUSE IT ADDS TO THE HEBREW BIBLE).


      • How do you know if the Mormon “tests” succeeds for them Jeremy? All I can do for anyone is to point them toward Scripture. Beyond that, I can care less since Scripture is very clear that each one of us is responsible for our own actions relating the the Almighty. Our guide book is from the very same Bible (scrolls) that Yahshua used, the Hebrew Bible. There is nothing new under the sun. The same goes for any other belief system out in la la land, including those that claim the are “Christians.”

        These Hebrew Bible passages ONLY apply to True Covenant Israelites, and to the “Strangers” that become adopted “true Covenant Israelites” by keeping Yahweh’s Covenant/agreement The 10 Commandments.

        Ecc 12:13 This is the end of the matter. All has been heard. Fear the Mighty One, and keep his commandments; for this is the whole duty of Adamites.

        Ecc 12:14 For The Mighty One will bring every work into judgment, with every hidden thing, whether it is good, or whether it is bad.

        Deu 4:2 You shall not add to the word which I command you, neither shall you take away from it, that you may keep the commandments of Yahweh your Mighty One which I command you.

        Deu 4:39 Know therefore today, and take it to heart, that Yahweh himself is The Mighty One in heaven above and on the earth beneath. There is no one else.

        Deu 4:40 You shall keep his statutes, and his commandments, which I command you today, that it may go well with you, and with your children after you, and that you may prolong your days in the land, which Yahweh your God gives you, forever.

        Mic 6:8 He has shown you, O Adamite, what is good. What does Yahweh require of you, but to act justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your Mighty One?

        The Covenant, the Commandments (Deut. 5:2-22)

        Deu 5:6 “I YHWH (Yahweh) Mighty One, brought you out of the land of Mitsrayim, from the house of service.”

        Deu 5:7 “Have no other Mighty One above me.”

        Deu 5:8 “Do not make a carved image, or any likeness of that which is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.”

        Deu 5:9 “Do not bow yourself down to them, nor serve them; for I, Yahweh, your Mighty One, am a jealous Mighty One, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, on the third and on the fourth generation of those who hate me;

        Deu 5:10 and showing kindness to thousands of those who love me and guard my commandments.”
        Deu 5:11 “You shall not desecrate the name of Yahweh your Mighty One: for Yahweh will not hold guiltless who desecrates his name.”

        Deu 5:12 “Guard the day of intermission, to observe it, as Yahweh your Mighty One commanded you.”
        Deu 5:13 “Six days work, and do all your obligations;

        Deu 5:14 but the seventh day is an intermission to Yahweh your Mighty One , do not work, not your son, not your daughter, not your male servant, not your female servant, not your ox, not your donkey, not any of your livestock, not the stranger that is within your gate; so that your male servant and your female servant may rest as well as you.”

        Deu 5:15 “Remember, you were a servant in the land of Mitsrayim, and Yahweh your Mighty One brought you out of there by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm. Therefore Yahweh your Mighty One commanded you to guard the day of intermission.”

        Deu 5:16 “Honor your father and your mother, as Yahweh your Mighty One commanded you; that your days may be prolonged, and that it may go well with you, in the land which Yahweh your Mighty One gives you.

        Deu 5:17 “Do not murder.”

        Deu 5:18 “Do not adulterate.” (to make impure, by miscegenation)

        Deu 5:19 “Do not steal.”

        Deu 5:20 “Do not give false testimony against your associate.” (a neighbor)

        Deu 5:21 “Do not desire your associate’s wife. Do not wish for your associate’s house, his field, or his male servant, or his female servant, his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your associate’s.”

        Deu 5:22 “These words Yahweh spoke to all the assembly on the mountain out of the middle of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness, with a great voice. He added no more. He wrote them on two stone tablets, and gave them to me.” (Moses, for the Israelites)


  • Again, I understand that you think Mormons are wrong. You’ve made that abundantly clear. Would you be so kind as to put forth your explanation for why the Mormon test succeeds for them?


  • According to the Mormons and Moroni 10:4, if you pray sincerely to God about the Book of Mormon, it will be revealed to you that it is true. Millions of people have said this prayer and experienced a wonderful feeling that they believe could only be from God, confirming the truth of the Book of Mormon. It appears that for millions of people, their test is a successful confirmation that their beliefs and the book are true and from God.

    You obviously believe that the Mormons are wrong. You don’t need to quote any more scripture about your position on this. I’m not asking if you think they are wrong. I’m not asking you to use the Hebrew Bible to prove they are wrong. We’re clear on that and I’m fine with that.

    I’m interested in why you think their test succeeds. As the author of this article, I’m asking you, as a commenter, your views on a specific question. Could you please tell me, in your opinion, why they experience what they do when they conduct this test? For them, it is absolutely convincing. Why? And can you give an answer that does not involve quoting the Hebrew Bible?


    • Jeremy, I will try once more, but you still might not like the answer.

      Mormonism is a “Social Security type Religious system.”. If you stay in their system and follow their rules, they will help you in any manner you might need, physical or mental, or financial. But when able, you will be required to pay a heavy price…10% of your annual gain in income supports their organization (one of the largest religious corporations in the world). Something most religious groups lack. If however, you leave, or stray away from them, you will be shunned, cast out of their fellowship, and completely rejected, and put under a lot of mental pressure.

      These action make it very difficult for members to leave, because they will loose all contact with friends or family members that remain in their system. Many other cults do likewise. So their system is one of complete “capture.” Most of their low tier members are completely controlled (they are the sheep). They are often almost in a hypnotic religious state. I have on occasion met with individuals when on their mission trips and gently reached religious conversations where I was able to build them into a challenge of their beliefs using the Bible, and even their own documents. When they reach the point of “they cannot go there” their minds literally shut done, and they will go in a self introduced trance, mumbling the words “in my heart I know I’m right”…..that phrase will be repeated on and on without interruption on their part, until the conversation ends. In their minds they have overcome temptation. Would you call that a successful test?

      The Hebrew Bible gives us all sorts of tests to protect us from religious garbage religions like Mormonism. There is nothing in the Scriptures that requires a super organization like Mormonism, or other mega Churches. All they do is control, control, control. The Bible does not teach us to control others, The Bible teaches basic “faithfulness” to the ONE true power of the entire endless Universe.

      What Does Yahweh Require?

      Mic 6:6 How shall I come before Yahweh, and bow myself before the exalted Mighty One? Shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves a year old? (answer NO sacrifices are needed)

      Mic 6:7 Will Yahweh be pleased with thousands of rams? With tens of thousands of rivers of oil? Shall I give my firstborn for my disobedience? The fruit of my body for the sin of my soul? (answer NO! So no human sacrifice like a Jesus on the cross to pay for sin. Only sincere repentance before the Almighty is needed, (followed by a return toward keeping the Covenant).

      Mic 6:8 He has shown you, O man, what is good. What does Yahweh require of you, but to act justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your Mighty One?

      (can this be more simple?) Thanks be to Yahweh!



  • You accurately identify Yahweh as a storm god, but what about the obvious conclusion: That the early poetic mentions of Yahweh coming from Edom/Seir/Paran/Teman say this because – from the vantage point of Judah – dark storm clouds with lightning and fierce winds would advance from the direction of the southeast where those geographic locales were known to be.


    • That’s actually a very fascinating idea. It wasn’t obvious to me at all because I don’t know the weather patterns there. So thank you for bringing up that possibility. Very interesting indeed.


  • Actually, the (Kenite) “Levitical Priests” – and the original “Moses” tradition(!) – had absolutely nothing to do with the original Exodus stories… As Donald Redford rightfully claimed, both the “Josef” stories and the “getting out of Egypt” tradition were ancient local Canaanite-Israelite traditions which were developed by the descendants of some “Hyksosite” refugees, who fled from Egypt at the time when the Hyksos rule fell. This group of “Hyksosite” refugees had settled in Canaan – specifically in the area of Shechem – during the 16th century BCE,where they made alliances with all kinds of local Canaanite tribes and groups of “Habiru/Apiru” (from which we got the name “Hebrews” in the Bible stories about Josef and the Exodus), and where they built the “El-Brith” Temple(2) – which is known to us from Joshua 24 and Judges 9 – because they were worshipers of ‘El’, who was the first god of ‘Isra-el’ long before ‘Yahweh’ came along..

    In fact, it is not so hard to see that the Exodus tradition was first connected to El-the Bull (hence the “golden calves” in *Bit-EL* and all the verses about “El who took you/Israel out of Egypt” etc) – and it was only later *stolen* by the Yehowistic cult – which had everything to do with the “wandering in the desert” and “Yahweh dwelling and reviling himself in the area of the “Land of Midian” and Mount Horeb / Sinai” traditions, and nothing to do with the Exodus – which is not mentioned in the Song of Debora and the Blessing/Song of Moses, for a good reason…

    It might as well be that the Kinites worked with the Egyptians during the LB, and had cultural connections with them – and it could even be that there was a tradition about some Egyptian renegade called “Moses” who became an important leader among the Kenites (and/Israelites too) – but this has nothing to do with “Josef”+”getting out of Egypt” traditions…

    As for the “Kenite Hypothesis” and the “Levitical Priests” being from Kenite origin – it is very much correct(!) – and I think you should read what I wrote about it here:


    I’m (almost) sure you’ll like it… 🙂


    • Oded Israeli, thank you very much for the interesting reply. Please feel free to comment any time, this was great.

      I just skimmed your reply there on Quora and it looks to be fascinating. I was immediately curious about the idea of the J author being a Zadokite priest. I’ve recently become fascinated with Robert Eisemann’s work on the Dead Sea Scrolls, James the Brother of Jesus and their relationship to the ZDK tradition. The Qumran authors definitely held Melchizedek in high regard too. I’ve also been investigating some of the theories regarding the Deuteronomic tradition being composed in Hellenistic era, drawing on the older sources of J and E and perhaps even P. It turns a few things on its head, but the Hellenistic parallels are pretty compelling too. The biggest problem, however, is that it proposes the Exodus story is a Greek style “foundation myth”, but this presents problems with some of the J and E stories of the Exodus. Your proposal that the Exodus is older, but not related to the Moses story could actually make some sense of that.

      So much to think about.

      I look forward to reading it and would love to continue the discussion. I sadly don’t have time to read it at the moment, but I’m hoping that I do tomorrow. Again, I invite you back to continue the discussion and thanks again.

      Liked by 1 person

      • Thank you for the compliments and for your interest..

        To see the some of the links that were made by some scholars between the Hyksos related events and the Exodus tradition, see here:


        If you’d like, I can also elaborate on the evidence for the connection of the Exodus tradition to El – and the lack of connection between the Exodus tradition and the early traditions related to Yahweh…

        As for “Deuteronomic tradition being composed in Hellenistic era”:

        Personally I’m having hard-time with the attempts to date the main parts of Bible to Hellenistic period, and I consider most of it to be written partly in first temple period (E, J, and even few parts of P, D, and Dtr) and most of the rest in the early days of the second temple period.. Please note how the destruction of first temple is the last part of the “Deuteronomistic historiography” in the book of Kings; and how the declaration of Cyrus is the last thing mentioned in the more “priestly historiography” of Chronicles… Now, wouldn’t it be strange that “historians”/historiographers with some political or theological agenda, would end their stories with something that happened 200 – 300 years before their time, and have nothing to say about what happened during those last 300 years, and about their own time (or at-least something a bit more relevant to it)?.. Also note how Ezra, who is presented as a Zadokite priest which is already “forged” into the house of Aaron (Ezra 7: 1 – 6), has already adopted – and even partially quotes – the main themes of Deuteronomistic texts in Ezra 9: 7 – 15, and how Nehemiah, from the same time, is most clearly quoting large chunks of Deuteronomistic priestly texts (like in Nehemiah 1: 4 -10; Nehemiah 8 – 9), and even Dtr texts like: “Did not Solomon king of Israel sin by these things? yet among many nations was there no king like him, and he was beloved of his God, and God made him king over all Israel; nevertheless even him did the foreign women cause to sin” (Nehemiah 13)…

        Furthermore, in general, I find the idea of trying to date a Biblical text according to some vague “cultural/literature influence” that the authors might – or might not – have picked from some other group in the area, to be highly problematic (for example: I once had a professor who attempted to date the Josef stories to the Amarna period based on some Egyptian words & names and other cultural elements – just to show you how dates could swing this way) – and, more specifically, I’m having hard time finding anything “Hellenistic” in the main Deuteronomistic idea that there is only one god, that he should be worshiped only in one place, and that all other “idols” and worship places should be violently destroyed (sure, one could claim that this is a counter-reaction to the polytheistic and highly pluralistic Hellenistic culture, but from that aspect, it could have also been a counter-reaction to any former polytheistic and highly pluralistic culture in the area – Canaanite, Assyrian, Egyptian, Babylonian or Persian)…

        Finally, I probably should tell you that lately I started suspecting that J wrote his stories only after the reforms of King Josiah… It was after someone turned my attention to the fact that J “has a special thing about donkeys” in his stories, that I noticed that the story about “the prophecy of the man of god in Beit-El” (1 kings 13) has the similar style as J’s stories… The words: ” ‘O altar, altar, thus saith the LORD: Behold, a son shall be born unto the house of David, Josiah by name; and upon thee shall he sacrifice the priests of the high places that offer upon thee, and men’s bones shall they burn upon thee” (1 kings 13: 2) most certainly connect this author to a time after the reforms described in 2 kings 23 (see verses 15 – 18 there)… Now, since we know that the parts of “historical recollection” in Deuteronomy actually quote J, this got me thinking that maybe “the book of the Law” (סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה) which was “found in the house of Yahwah” at the time of Josiah’s reforms, was, at first, just a book of laws and instruction (which is the literal meaning of “תּוֹרָה”) and the historical parts were added a bit later… I’d love to here your opinion about this, because at this time I’m still a bit unsure and puzzled…


    • Throughout the known history of ancient Adam-kinds, many have attempted to “Create” for themselves a god, something of wood and stone to relate to, to see, to imagine. Israel in it’s early history as a hum-bug loosely related group of tribal people were no different then the other people groups surrounding them. Israel in fact (according to the Biblical accounts) also accepted some of their pagan gods, used some of thir pagan god names, and even worshiped some of their pagan god objects. But going on – through time in Biblical history (much of which is not dependable) the relation of Israel to one specific god became soundly known.

      The name of one God was revealed to them to be YHWH, Through the ancient Israelite Prophets, over time, the specifics of this one God was revealed to Israel as were the does and the do nots. Eventually a Covenant was made between this One Sovereign and the people of Israel, Deut. 5:2-22.

      Whatever anyone may feel as the reason or the purpose of this revelation, or the evidence of it, is really NOT the point, and is secondary. The factas revealed in the Hebrew Bible, is,that YHWH (Yahweh) did become became Israel’s Almighty Sovereign Creator Power, the Life-Essence accepted by the ancient Israelites.

      YHWH still remains the Almighty Sovereign of all “True” (Covenant keeping Israelites) even today. He YHWH through His anointed Prophets gave and revealed His name to the Israelites which has the meaning of I-Am, or Ever-Living. He was the only Almighty Sovereign of the Ancient Israelites and those that have become “True” Covenant Israelites liviing today. Isaiah 56:6, To anyone reading the information I have provided on this site, I really don’t care what you believe, or what you may think, to me it is not important. I am not a Missionary, and do not intend to me. You have the right to believe what you want to, you have the gift of choice, so use it. Now at 74 years old, since I began writing on this site, I have a lot more information even added to my own personal believe. I am not going to spend any more time on this site, but if you want more information, or to dialog, go to my web site: “AOYCascade,com” and contact me(us) through the listed e-mail found there. First Read Micah 6:6-7. This is all that really needs to be said.

      YHWH Bless you all in your search for truth!


      • Yochannan, please don’t think that you have to stop posting because I don’t agree with you. We may not agree, but that doesn’t mean discussion can’t still take place.

        Much of what you say depends greatly upon starting assumptions about the Bible. I too have changed some ideas about the Bible’s composition because I’ve changed my starting assumptions. For example, I’m skeptical about the dating of books like Deuteronomy through 2 Kings. It now seems plausible that they were composed as late as the Hellenistic era, but the stories are retrojected into the hallowed past, to give the Deuteronomic laws a sense of antiquity. As Plato suggested, it is easier to get a nation of people to obey laws, if you ascribe them to antiquity, and say that they were delivered by a god. I think it’s essentially the same technique used by Joseph Smith. He wrote it in 1830, but placed its authorship in ancient North America by fictional authors from Israel, to give it an ancient pedigree. It also gave him the opportunity to inject “prophecy” into the books, which turned out to be remarkably accurate, since he already knew what had happened. This is analogous to some of the curses and predictions in Deuteronomy.

        I think you’re right that Israel was polytheistic, and that there was a YHWH alone movement. Where I disagree is that Israel ever stopped being polytheistic at all. I think the scribal and priestly elite moved to monotheism, but not everybody in Israel was willing to abandon that old time religion. This is why Israel is portrayed as such fickle people, constantly going back to the old gods. Because they never really left them in the first place.

        Essentially, I’m not willing to take much of the Bible at face value, and I’m willing to consider other hypotheses and theories.


      • Jeremy, I really like your comments. It doesn’t bother me if there is agreement or not since I am always willing to learn, and have from others many times. Even though I am retired, I still find less time daily to communicate to others. I have had a web-site since 2001, and it take time to keep up with questions and my correspondence with others.

        I do agree with much of what you have said, and your understanding of Josef Smith (all written by Solomon Spaulding first as a novel) was right on the mark. It’s also true that much of ancient Israel had a difficult time letting go of, as you say “the old time religion.” This is quite obvious . through the writings of the ancient Prophets as they were trying to keep Israel on the right track, the one that was given to them (by revelation??) and to keep “the lid on” religious Israel so-to-speak. BTW, I do not put the modern Jew in the “True Israelite” category (just so you know).

        Have you ever read “The Age of Reason” by Thomas Paine? His work (Part i and Part ii) was published in 1796, first in England and it was well known by the founding fathers of America. Part III was published by Paine in New York in 1807. If you haven’t read it, his work will change your entire Biblical belief. it is a cheep book to purchase, but a very valuable work, available at Amazon for less than 10-. Pain was over 200 years ahead of us in his realistic (reasoned) understanding of Biblical Theology. His time I believe has now come “in our age.” He was way beyond those of the “Old Time religion (of his age). Paine also questions everything in the Bible that is commonly accepted as face value especially what we refer to as “revealed religion”. I would really like you to email me if you have read it, or if you haven’t, when you have read it, I would appreciate your comments and you thoughts about Paine’s writings.

        Again thanks for the comments you have made, they were refreshing!




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